The Hachisuka of Owari Province claimed descent from Shiba Takatsune (d.1367) and later came to serve the Oda family.
Oda, Toyotomi retainer
Masakatsu originally ruled a small fief from Miyashiro and may have served the Saitô before joining the Oda some time before 1566, though he struggled for a time with Nobunaga. He later pledged his loyalty to Toyotomi Hideyoshi and received a stipend of 10,000 koku. He is said to have been of particular use to Hideyoshi in his construction of the 'One Night Castle' at Sunomata in 1567, though whether the incident itself ever occurred is a matter of debate among historians. He took part in the Battle of Anegawa (1570) and was active in Hideyoshi's campaign in the Chugoku Region. During that endeavor, Masakatsu led 300 men in the attack on Kôzuki Castle in Harima Province (1577).
Oda, Toyotomi retainer
Awa no kami
Iemasa was the eldest son of Hachisuka Masakatsu. He first served Oda Nobunaga and fought at the Battle of Nagashino (1575). He assisted Toyotomi Hideyoshi in the Komaki Campaign by attacking the warrior monks of Kii (1584). Following the Shikoku Campaign of 1585, he was given Tokushima in Awa Province. He participated in the Odawara Campaign (1590) and led 7,200 men in the 1st Invasion of Korea (1592-93). After returning from the 2nd Korean Campaign (1597-98), he retired in favor of his son Yoshishige.
Toyotomi, Tokugawa retainer
Awa no Kami
Yoshshige was a son of Hachisuka Iemasa and inherited his father's fief at Tokushima in Awa Province when Iemasa retired. He supported Tokugawa Ieyasu during the Sekigahara Campaign (1600) and later served him at Osaka Castle (1615). Soon afterwards he was given Awaji Island to add to his domain.
HACHIJO no Miya Toshihito
Hachijo was a younger brother of the emperor, Go-Yozei. Toyotomi Hideyoshi adopted Hachijo in 1588 in an effort to strengthen Toyotomi and Imperial ties. In 1590 he was given land worth 3,000 koku and was slated to act as Hideyoshi's governor of Japan after China's hoped-for submission (during the Korean Invasion of 1592-93).
Toki, Saitô, Oda, Toyotomi retainer
Dewa no kami
Yoritaka was at first a retainer of the Toki of Mino Province. He joined the usurpers of the Toki house, the Saitô, then left them in turn for Oda Nobunaga. After Nobunaga's death, he went on to serve Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He died without an heir and so his family became extinct.
The Haga of Shimotsuke Province were related to the Utsunomiya and claimed descent from Kiyowara Takashige, who in the 7th Century incurred the displeasure of the Emperor Tenmu and was exiled to Shimotsuke. The Haga branched off from the Utsunomiya much later and established themselves at Haga castle in the 12th Century. They served the Utsunomiya into the 16th Century, with a son of Utsunomiya Hirotsuna (1543-1580),Takasada, being named heir to the Haga house. They lost their lands when the Utsunomiya were dispossessed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
Ieyoshi was a noted retainer of Shibata Katsuie and was killed in the Shizugatake Campaign.
Tadatsugu served Takeda Shingen. He was killed in 4th Battle of Kawanakajima in 1561. His parentage is unclear, but he may have been the son of Hajikano Den'emon, who was himself killed at the Battle of Uedahara in 1548.
Masatsugu was the son of Hajikano Tadatsugu and is best remembered for testing the depth of the Sasao River in the Takeda's 1569 Odawara Campaign by fearlessly riding into the waters himself. He fought at the Battle of Nagashino in 1575 and survived the fall of the Takeda in 1582 to die of illness in 1624, perhaps the last of the famous Takeda retainers to die.
Echigo no kami
Masayuki was born in Harima Province but came to serve Ukita Naoie of Bizen Province. He became one of Naoie's senior retainers and was remembered for his skill with bow and arrow. In one notable incident, a pirate commander boasted that he would expose his neck and see if any arrow could strike it, which prompted Masayuki, a passanger on a boat he was threatening, to loose an arrow and kill him with one shot.
The Hara, originally of Shimôsa Province at first served the Chiba family. Three branches went on to fame in the service of the Takeda of Kai Province. After the Takeda were destroyed in 1582, certain members of the Hara went on to serve Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Mino no Kami
Toratane's family were at one time vassals of the Chiba of Shimôsa before entering the service of Takeda Nobutora. Toratane assisted in the defeat of Fukushima Masashige in 1521 and earned a reputation as one of the most skilled Takeda generals. Interestingly, he deserted the Takeda briefly in 1553 to the Hôjô, though he was convinced to return shortly thereafter. He was active in the Takeda's wars in Shinano Province and received Hirase Castle. He was badly wounded at Warikadake Castle in Shinano Province in 1561 and afterwards effectively went into retirement. He died as a result of his wounds on 3/11/1564. He was reputed to have been wounded no fewer then 53 times over the course of some 30 battles. Ironically, after his death, Masatane's title,Mino no kami, went to Baba Nobufusa - who was equally famed for never having been injured once in battle prior to his own death.
Son: (Yokota) Yasukage
Hayatô no suke
Masatane was a the son of Hara Kaga no Kami Masatoshi, and relative of Toratane, though from a different branch of the family, and was also a skilled commander. He was present at the Battle of Mimasetoge (1569) and was killed in the forefront of the fighting in the Battle of Nagashino in 1575. He had been especially trusted by Takeda Shingen, who thought highly of his talents.
Ôsumi no kami
Torayoshi served Takeda Shingen. He was related to both Hara Masatane and Hara Toratane, though all three were from different branches of the Hara family. He is best known for an event that occured at the 4th Battle of Kawanakajima (1561). At that time he served in Shingen's headquarters, which was raided at the height of the battle by an enemy horseman (reputed to have been Uesugi Kenshin himself). Hara alone was in a position to come to Shingen's aid, and rushed forward to ward off the rider with spear thrusts at the horse. The details of his career after Kawanakajima are unclear.
Son: Toranaga (d.1582)
Munetoki succeeded his uncle Munemasa when the latter was killed in battle with the Sôma. He became one of Date Masamune's closest advisors but died of illness returning from Masamune's Nagoya headquarters during Hideyoshi's invasion of Korea.
Bitchu no kami, Kurouzaemon
Naomasa was originally called Ban Noamasa. Nobunaga appointed him as one of the four administrators of Kyoto (along with along with Matsui Yukon, Murai Sadakatsu, and Takei Sekian) by Oda Nobunaga after 1568 and also assigned him admistrative duties in Yamato (ca.1574). After 1574, around when he was allowed to change his name to Harada, he began to participate in military affairs and was named as one of Nobunaga's Go-umamawari-shû (bodyguard) and placed in command of matchlockmen at Nagashino (1575). That same year he helped put down residual ikko resistance in Ise Province. In 1576 he joined Akechi Mitsuhide and Hosokawa Tadaoki in a campaign against the Ishiyama Honganji complex. En route, he was ambushewd by Honganji forces and killed.
Nobutane was originally a member of the Kusano family but was adopted into the Harada household. He served Akizuki Tanezane and was killed in combat in the 2nd Korean Campaign.
Tôhaku was born at Nanao in Noto Province. After painting a number of Buddhist-influenced works in his native Noto, he moved to Kyoto around 1471 and studied the Kanô school of painting. He produced a volume of work over the next 30 years and in 1603 was given the title Hôkyô. He died on March 20 1610. Tôhaku's paintings were done in a number of styles, from his earlier buddhist efforts to his later, black-ink genpitsu tai productions. His most famous works include 'Picture of Pine Forest', 'Picture of Monkey in Dead Trees', and 'Picture of Flower and Trees'. Tôhaku is attributed with the 'Portrait of Takeda Shingen' (which has long defined the popular perception of Shingen) but recently scholars have wondered if the subject of that work was in fact a Hatakeyama lord.
Akishige was a retainer of the Uesugi clan and served under the command of Saitô Tomonobu. At the 4th Battle of Kawanakajima (1561) Akishige fought gallantly and bested a Takeda hero named Yasuma Hiroshige in one-on-one combat. He was personally rewarded afterwards by Uesugi Kenshin.
Tsunenaga was appointed by Date Masamune to lead a diplomatic mission to Europe in 1613. He was baptized en route to Italy and was admitted into Rome, later returning to find that Masamune had changed his policies on Christianity.
The name 'Hashiba' was adopted by the future Toyotomi Hideyoshi sometime around 1568. It was inspired by combing characters derived from the family names of two of Hideyoshi's fellow Oda retainers, Niwa and Shibata. Hideyoshi later changed his family name to Toyotomi but granted the name 'Hashiba' to many of his noted retainers as an honorifc.
See TOYOTOMI HIDEYOSHI
Hidekatsu was the 2nd son of Miyoshi Yorifusa (Yoshifusa) and was adopted by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
See Toyotomi HIDENAGA
Hashiba (Oda) Hidekatsu
See ODA HIDEKATSU.
The Hatakeyama were descended from Taira Takamochi. As early supporters of the Ashikaga, they became very powerful as shûgo during the Muromachi Period. In the aftermath of the Ônin War, the Hatakeyama were much diminished and now represented by a number of scattered branches, the most notable of which resided in Kwatchi, Noto, and Mutsu. The Kwatchi-Hatakeyama were represented at the start of the 16th Century by two main branches issuing from Hatakeyama Mochikuni (d.1455). The more powerful of the two derived from Masanaga (d.1493). Masanaga had been adopted by Mochikuni when the latter had despaired of having any natural sons. When Mochikuni did in fact a sire a son (Yoshinari), he sought to disinherit Masanaga. A civil war ensued and the two branches were often at odds thereafter.
Yoshihide was a son of Hatakeyama Yoshitoyo (and a descendant of Hatakeyama Yoshinari). He held Takeyama Castle in Kwatchi Province. He lost his castle to Hatakeyama Naonobu but, siding with the Miyoshi and Hosokawa Sumimoto in 1511, he was able to return. He was an ally of Miyoshi Motonaga and committed suicide when under attack by Hosokawa Harumoto in 1532.
Kii no kami, Harima no kami, Owari no kami
Takamasa was a son of Hatakeyama Harima no kami Masakuni (whose other sons included Masayori and Akitaka) and resided at Takaya Castle in Kwatchi Province. He clashed with the Miyoshi between 1559 and 1560 and in 1568 was established in Takaya Castle by Ashikaga Yoshiaki. Takamasa lost Takaya to a rebellious retainer named Yuza Nobunori in 1573 and while the castle was subsequently retaken by Nobunaga, Takamasa was not reinstated.
Son: Terutaka (d.1573)
Sadamasa was a son of Hatakeyama Harima no kami Masayori and the nephew of Takamasa. He was encouraged by Kennyo Kosa to revolt (in conjunction with Matsunaga Hidahide) against Oda Nobunaga in 1577. He later joined the alliance (headed by Tokugawa Ieyasu) against Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1584 but was killed in the fighting. Sadamasa's descendants went on to serve the Tokugawa.
This branch of the Hatakeyama held Nihonmatsu Castle in Mutsu and saw its power gradually diminish over the course of the sengoku period, until they were looked upon by their neighbors the Ashina as essentially vassals. Nonetheless, allied to the Kasai, they clashed frequently with the Date family They were largely destroyed at the hands of Date Masamune in 1586.
Yoshikuni was a son of Nihonmatsu Yoshiuji, whom he succeeded in 1547 to become the 13th lord of the Nihonmatsu Hatakeyama. He came into conflict with the Ashina clan at various times.
Son: (Hatakeyama) Yoshitsugu
Yoshitsugu was the son of Nihonmatsu Yoshikuni. He was hard-pressed by Date Masamune and in the autumn of 1585 called on Masamune's retired father, Terumune, to intercede and make peace. When Terumune and Yoshitsugu met, however, Yoshitsugu kidnapped Terumune at sword-point. Whether Yoshitsugu had planned beforehand to carry out this incredible act is unclear. When Masamune was alerted to the double-cross he rode hard after Yoshitsugu's party. In the confrontation that ensued, Terumune and Yoshitsugu were killed. Another version of events, however, states that Yoshitsugu in fact escaped back to Nihonmatsu Castle. Masamune attacked Nihonmatsu the following year and the Hatakeyama accepted an offer of surrender brokered by the Sôma family. Yoshitsugu's life, however, was forfeit and Masamune had his head exposed.
Sons: Yoshitsuna, Yoshikuni
This branch of the Hatakeyama, based at Nanao in Echigo, was weakened by internal strife that finally brought about its ruin as an independant daimyô house in the 1570's.
Lord of Noto
Yoshifusa succeeded Hatakeyama Yoshimoto in 1514. To consolidate his power over Noto Province he reinforced Nanao Castle, where he established himself in 1526. He was best known for acting as a patron to scholars and invited various scholars from Kyoto to come and lecture at Nanao. A capable leader, the Noto Hatakeyama enjoyed a period of relative stability under his rule.
Lord of Noto
Yoshitsugu was the 2nd son of Hatakeyama Yoshifusa, whom he succeeded in 1545. He was forced to defend his position shortly afterwards from an uncle and did so with the support of Nukui family. By 1550, however, civil strife within Noto had seen Yoshitsugu's authority diminish. Nanao Castle fell to Yoshitsugu's independant-minded retainers and he was forced to become a priest in 1551, although he acted as a guardian for Yoshitsuna, his successor. In 1566 he joined his son in fleeing to Ômi Province.
Sons: Yoshitsuna, Yoshiharu (Jojo Masashige)
Lord of Noto
Yoshitsuna succeeded Hatakeyama Yoshitsugu at the age of 16. At this time a council of seven Hatakeyama retainers had formed and these men endeavored to use Yoshitsuna as a puppet. Yoshitsuna and Yoshitsugu worked quietly to create rifts within the council. They found an ally in Igawa Mitsunobu, whom they had appointed to the council in 1554 following the death of an original member. Civil war erupted again at around the same time and the effect was to enhance Yoshitsuna's position. Yoshitsuna was unable to maintain control over his troublesome retainers, however, and was finally forced to flee to Ômi Province around 1566. His son Yoshitaka was overthrown by those same retainers in 1574, prompting Uesugi Kenshin to later attack Noto. Yoshitsuna's brother Yoshiharu served the Uesugi and became better known as Jojo Masashige.
Lord of Noto
Iga no kami
Yoshitaka was the second son of Hatakeyama Yoshitsuna and was apparently sent to the Nihonmatsu-Hatakeyama for adoption. In 1574 he was established assumed control as the 11th head of the Noto Hatakeyama but was overthrown by the Cho and others. He died suddenly in 1576.
Son: Yoshitaka (1557?-1574)
Yukishige served Toyotomi Hideyoshi and was given Hiji Castle in Bungo Province in 1587. He sided with Ishida Mitsunari during the Sekigahara Campaign (1600) and was afterwards deprived of his fief by Tokugawa Ieyasu.
The Hatano claimed descent from Fujiwara Hidesato (ca.940) and were founded by a certain Hatano Tsunenori. Eight generations later, Hatano Tsunemoto settled in Tamba Province. Here they remained until being destroyed by Oda Nobunaga in 1579. Another, obscure, branch of the Hatano resided in Echizen province.
Lord of Tamba
Hidemichi was a son of Hatano Tanemichi and held Yakimi Castle in Tamba Province. He allied with Hosokawa Harumoto and was attacked by the Miyoshi as a result in 1555. He lost Yakimi Castle, though his own fate is unclear. He married a daughter to Bessho Nagaharu.
Sons: Hideharu, Hidenao
Lord of Tamba
Hideharu was a son of Hatano Harumichi. He recaptured Yakimi Castle in 1566 and later sided with Ashikaga Yoshiaki when the latter was estranged with Oda Nobunaga. Hideharu's domain was invaded by the Oda and Hideharu was besieged in Yakimi by Akechi Mitsuhide (1579). He surrendered but was executed, over Mitsuhide's objections, on Nobunaga's orders.
Hanzo was the son of Hattori Yasunaga of Iga Province. Yasunaga came to serve Matsudaira Hirotada of Mikawa Province and Hanzo served Hirotada's son, Tokugawa Ieyasu. He fought in a number of Ieyasu's battles, including Anegawa (1570) and Mikatagahara (1573). He was one of the men tasked with helping Tokugawa Nobuyasu commit suicide in 1579, an assignment Hanzo proved unable to carry out due to his regard for the Nobuyasu. He inherited ties with the warriors of Iga and immediately following the death of Nobunaga was able to use these connections to lead Tokugawa Ieyasu safely back to Mikawa. Hanzo is famous in folklore as a leader of 'ninja' and following the Tokugawa move to the Kanto in 1590 received the rank of Yoriki and led a 200-man unit of Iga warriors who formed the foundation of the Edo Castle guard.
Sons: Masanari, Masashige
Iwami no Kami
Masanari was the eldest son of Hattori Hanzo. He served as the captain of the Edo Castle guards but became involved in a scandal. He was killed in the Osaka Summer Campaign (1615), possibly as the result of a bid to exonerate his damaged reputation, and was succeeded by his younger brother Masashige.
Tomokane served Ryûzôji Takanobu and was considered the most capable of his battlefield commanders, serving in most of his battles and everywhere distinguishing himself. He was killed in the defeat at Okitanawate.
Sado no Kami
Hidesada was a son of Hayashi Hachirôzaemon and acted as a childhood tutor to Oda Nobunaga. He plotted with Shibata Katsuie and Oda Nobuyuki against Nobunaga in 1557 but was pardoned for his actions and went on to govern land in his native Owari Province. Hidesada was active in government following Nobunaga's arrival in Kyoto in 1568 and tended to various administrative and diplomatic tasks. After 1577 he was ordered to attend to Oda Nobutada, Nobunaga's heir, and accompanied him on both military and domestic assignments. Hidesada was abruptly purged from the Oda ranks in 1580 on charges of treasonous behavior. He died soon afterwards. Hidesada's younger brother, Hayashi Mimasaka no kami, was killed in the abortive attempt to overthrow Nobunaga in 1557.
Shinjirô was a son of Hayashi Michitada and served Oda Nobunaga. He fought in a number of notable engagements, including Anegawa (1570) and an attack on the Ishiyama Honganji (1570), before being killed in the rear-guard of the Oda army at Nagashima (1573).
See TACHIBANA DOSETSU
See TOYOTOMI HIDEYOSHI
Asai, Oda retainer
Naofusa was at first a retainer of Asai Nagamasa and held land in Ômi Province. When the Asai and Oda went to war, Naofusa ended up siding with the Oda.
Hironari served Saitô Tatsuoki and became a monk after the latter's defeat in 1567.
Oda, Toyotomi retainer
Takayoshi served Oda Nobunaga and, later, Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He served in the Odawara Campaign (1590) and was given Takashima in Shinano Province.
Son: Yoshitomo (1588-1658)
The Hiraiwa of Mikawa Province claimed descent from the ancient Mononobe family. They came to be retainers of the Imagawa but later joined the Matsudaira (Tokugawa).
Chikayoshi was a son of Hiraiwa Chikashige. He became a trusted retainer of Tokugawa Ieyasu and acted as a tutor to the latter's eldest son Nobuyasu (who was later made to commit suicide). A veteran of the Battle of Nagashino (1575), he took part in the failed expedition against the Sanada in 1585. He was given a 30,000-koku fief at Umabayashi in Kôzuke Province in 1590. He was later named as guardian of Tokugawa Yoshinao.
Konô, Toyotomi retainer
Tôtômi no kami
Michiyori was a son of Hiraoka Fusazane and held Ebara Castle in Iyo Province. He supported the Kono family and in 1585 defended Yuzuki Castle during Toyotomi Hideyoshi's invasion of Shikoku. He led troops in the advance force Hideyoshi dispatched to Kyushu in late 1586 and afterwards accompanied Kono Michinao to live in Aki Province.
Masamune was a senior councilor to Shimazu Tadatsune. He was assassinated on the order of the latter on suspicion of treason.
Masahide served three generations of the Oda family (Nobusada, Nobuhide, and Nobunaga). He was regarded as a man of culture and learning and during Nobunaga's time was concerned primarily with economic and diplomatic matters. Among other things, he arranged the marriage of Nobunaga to a daughter of Saitô Dosan in 1549. After admonishing Nobunaga many times for what he felt was unbecoming and unreasonable behavior, he committed suicide in 1553 as a final protest. In regret over Masahide's death, Nobunaga built a temple in the Hirate fief (in Owari's Kasugai District), which was nicknamed the 'Masahide-ji'.
Norihide was the son of Hirate Hisahide and a grandson of Nirate Masahide (Kiyohide). He served Oda Nobunaga and in 1573 was dispatched (along with Sakuma Nobumori and Takigawa Kazumasu) to reinforce the Tokugawa army, which at the time was menaced by Takeda Shingen. In the following Battle of Mikatagahara, Norihide stood firm in the face of the enemy even as his compatriots Sakuma and Takigawa retreated. Norihide's troops were at length overwhelmed and Norihide himself was killed. Shingen is said to have afterwards sent Norihide's head to Oda Nobunaga as a symbol of their now open hostility towards one another. As Norihide died without an heir, the Hirate house passed to one of Hirate Masahide's nephews.
Takeda, Tokugawa retainer
Mino no kami
Kagefusa was at first a retainer of the Takeda and served Yamagata Masakage in numerous engagements (including Mimasetoge-1569). He survived the Battle of Nagashino (1575) and when the Takeda fell in 1582, he was taken on by the Tokugawa. He became a trusted retainer of Ii Naomasa and fought bravely in the Battles of Nagakute (1584) and Sekigahara (1600). He was also present at the Odawara Campaign (1590). He was afterwards given an income of 1,500 koku. On the way back from the Osaka Winter Campaign, Tokugawa Ieyasu invited Kagefusa, by now an old man, to drink with him and honored his services. His adopted son, Masayoshi, was killed fighting the troops of Kimura Shigenari in the Osaka Summer Campaign (1615).
Sadakatsu was a son of Hisamatsu Sado no kami Toshikatsu and Tokugawa Ieyasu's half-brother by virtue of sharing the same mother. After the Sekigahara Campaign (1600), Sadakatsu was given Kakegawa in Tôtômi Province (recently vacated by Yamaouchi Kazutoyo). In 1617 he was transferred to Kuwana in Ise Province. Three years later, he was established at Nagashima (also in Ise).
Sons: Yoshitomo (1588-1658), Sadatsuna
Chikanao was a retainer of Chosokabe Motochika and the latter's son, Morichika. He assumed control of his family when his elder brother Chikanobu was killed fighting at Okayama Castle in Iyo Province in 1579. An adroit schemer, Chikanao ingratiated himself with Motochika and played a role in the naming of Morchika as heir to the Chosokabe in 1587 (following the death of Morchika's elder brother in battle in 1586). He convinced Morichika to have Kira Chikazane, one of Chikanao's rivals and an outspoken opponent of Mochika's succession, put to death in 1600, evidently through slander that suggested that Chikazane was in league with the Tokugawa. When the Chosokabe were deprived of their Tosa domain shortly afterwards, Chikanao, to the chagrin of many of his fellow retainers, went off to serve the Katô of Higo Province.
Kii no kami, Gunai-shôyu
Kunisada served Shimazu Yoshihisa and Yoshihiro and resided at Ichiki in Satsuma Province. He served in a number of battles, including Mimigawa (1578) and Minamata (1581), and was considered an important retainer.
The Hôjô were founded by Ise Shinkuro (Sôun) and therefore were no relation to the earlier family of Regents (shikken), whose name was apparently borrowed for its prestige value. They ruled from Odawara Castle in Sagami Province from around 1520 until their defeat at the hands of Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1590. During that time they expanded throughout the Kanto at the expense of the Uesugi and by 1590 could claim control of much of the region. Although the Hôjô enjoyed martial success, their domestic developments make them a favorite subject among scholars. The origins of the Ise family are unclear, and certain scholars place their homeland as Bitchû Province while others maintain that they were Kyoto natives.
(Ise Nagauji, Ise Shinkûro, Ise Shozui)
Lord of Izu
Sôun, who carried the family name Ise throughout his life and was first known as Shinkûro, was educated at the Daitoku-ji in Kyoto, though many aspects of the first half of his life are unclear. He fled the capital during the Ônin War and with six followers entered the service of his brother-in-law, Imagawa Yoshitada of Suruga Province. Yoshitada was killed in 1476 and a succession dispute threatened to engulf the Imagawa in armed conflict, as sides formed between Yoshitada's young son Ujichika and the latter's cousin, Oshika Norimitsu. Sôun, seen as an objective observer, was asked to mediate, and he suggested that Norimitsu act as regent until Ujichika came of age. This proposal was at first accepted but when Ujichika became old enough to take over, Norimitsu refused to relinquish his place. Sôun, who had previously returned to Kyoto, then attacked and killed Norimitsu at the latter's mansion and afterwards Ujichika displayed his gratitude by presenting Sôun with Kokokuji Castle (in Suruga Province). There Sôun was tasked with helping to guard the Imagawa's eastern borders and steadily increased his band of followers. In 1591 neighboring Izu Province was shaken by an upset within the ruling power there, the Ashikaga (the so-called Horigoe Kubô). That year Ashikaga Masatomo (younger brother of the late shôgun Ashikaga Yoshimasa) passed away. Ashikaga Chachamaru (that being the only name he is known by) assumed control of his clan through the murder of his brother and stepmother. Sôun used the act as a pretext for an invasion, securing both the approval and military assistance of the Imagawa. He took Horigoe Castle in 1493 and banished Chachamaru. He relocated his retainer band to Nirayama, going on to subdue all of Izu Province. Drawing away from the Imagawa, he allied with the Ôgigayatsu branch of the Uesugi and assisted them in their war with the Yamaouchi Uesugi even as he edged in Sagami Province. In 1493 Uesugi Sadamasa was killed in battle against the Yamanouchi and Sôun took advantage of the situation to wrest Odawara from the Ômori in 1595 and made this a point from which to expand throughout Sagami. Sôun and his allies were defeated the following year by Uesugi Akisada and the Hôjô and Uesugi would remain bitter enemies for decades. He invaded Kai Province in 1498 and clashed with the Takeda clan. In the course of this campaign he forced Ashikaga Chachamaru, who had taken up with the Takeda after being driven from Izu, to commit suicide. In 1512 Sôun went to war with the Miura of eastern Sagami, capturing Kamakura and crushing an Ota army sent to assist the Muira. He attacked Arai Castle in 1516, at length forcing Miura Yoshiatsu and Miura Yoshimoto to commit suicide in 1518. Sôun handed full control of the family to his son Ujitsuna in 1518 and died the following year. Apart from his military accomplishments, Sôun is perhaps best known for the Sûun-ji Dono Nijuichi Kajo (The 21 Injunctions of Lord Sôun), which he composed around 1495. In addition, he became popular with the common people of his lands by lowering taxes from the usual 50 percent to 40 percent. According to the Hôjô Godai-ki, this was done in response to an epidemic which was causing the common people great suffering. Following his conquest of Kamakura, Sûun had made donations to the Kenchouji, Engakuji, and Toukeiji temples, acts performed at the time to demonstrate his new power but it was an example his descendants were to emulate.
Although he is remembered as Hôjô Sôun, there is no evidence that he ever used that family name during his lifetime. His son, Ujitsuna, appears to have adopted the name around 1523.
Sons: Ujitsuna, Ujitoki, Nagatsuna (Genan)
Lord of Sagami
Sakyô-daibu, Sagami no kami
Ujitsuna was the eldest son of Hôjô Sôun and assumed formal control of the family in 1518. He expanded into Musashi Province at the expense of the Ogigayatsu branch of the Uesugi. He took Edo (present-day Tokyo) in 1524 and Kamakura in 1526. He also came to be at odds with the Takeda of Kai, being defeated by Takeda Nobutora at Nashinokidaira in 1526. In 1524, the Satomi of Awa attacked Kamakura and in the course of the fighting the Tsurugaoka Hachiman Shrine was burned. Ujitsuna undertook the rebuilding of this famous landmark and was rewarded by the Court for his efforts with the titles of Sakyô-daibu and Fifth Court Rank Junior Grade. In 1535 he marched in support of Imagawa Ujiteru of Suruga, then fighting for control of the Imagawa. In his absence the Ogigayatsu-Uesugi invaded his domain and burned a number of towns. Ujitsuna returned from Suruga and gathered together his allies to defeat the Uesugi at the Irumagawa. During the 1530's he penetrated deeper into Musashi and took the castles of Matsuyama and Kawagoe in 1537 (Kawagoe marked the northernmost extent of Ujitsuna's advance). The Satomi continued to contest his advances but he defeated them at the 1st Battle of Konodai (1538). As gifted a warrior and governor as his father, Ujitsuna put great effort the organization of his domain, rebuilding damaged temples and creating comprehensive manpower registers. He also earned praise for erecting a temple to honor the memory of his later father.
Sons: Ujiyasu, Tsunashige (Adopted)
Ujitoki was the 2nd son of Hôjô Sôun. He was first known as Shinrokurô. He for a time held Odawara Castle and was later established at Tamawana Castle, taken from the Miura in 1512. He fought Satomi Yoshitaka at the Tobegawa in 1526.
Nagatsuna was the 3rd son of Hôjô Sôun and was a long-time pillar of the Hôjô house. He was schooled in Kyoto and became known for his cultural pursuits and penchant for study. In 1569 he lost his eldest son Shinzaburô Tsunashige and his second son Nagatoshi in battle with Takeda Shingen. To console him, Hôjô Ujiyasu briefly gave Nagatsuna (who is better known as Genan) his own 7th son, Ujihide, to adopt. Nagatsuna acted as a clan councilor into the rule of Hôjô Ujinao. He was also noted for his skill at the hand drum and flute as well as bow and arrow and horsemanship - and for being possibly the longest-lived sengoku warrior. He was remembered as cutting a distinctive figure in later years by his wearing of black kimonos. Since Ujihide was chosen to be adopted into the Uesugi family, Nagatsuna was succeeded by his grandson Ujitaka. He died on 12/8/1589.
Sons: Tsunashige (Shinzaburô;d.1569), Nagatoshi (d.1569)
Lord of Sagami
Sagami no kami, Sakyô-daibu
Ujiyasu was the son of Hôjô Ujitsuna. His first battlefield experience came in 1530, at the Battle of Ozawahara, where the Hôjô won a victory against Uesugi Tomooki. His father made a great effort to tutor him on the matters he would face as daimyô, both in war and in administration. Ujitasuna passed away in 1541, and Ujiyasu assumed full control of the clan. He contended with both main branches of the Uesugi house (the Yamaouchi and Ogigayatsu) and in 1544 was faced with danger on two sides, with the Takeda and Imagawa allied against him to the west, and the Uesugi threatening to the north. Ujiyasu marched into Suruga Province and faced Imagawa Yoshimoto at Kitsunebashi. At this time his ally, Ashikaga Haruuji (the koga kubô), betrayed the Hôjô and aligned with the Uesugi. In November 1545 Kawagoe Castle was surrounded by the Uesugi and Ashikaga. To free up his forces to respond, Ujiyasu was compelled to accept a peace settlement with the Imagawa (brokered by Takeda Shingen, who was now involved in fighting in Shinano) that entailed giving up the Hôjô lands in eastern Suruga Province. This treaty allowed Ujiyasu to march to Kawagoe's relief. He won the decisive Battle of Kawagoe, fought at night, in May 1546 and dealt the Ogigyatsu Uesugi a heavy blow. By 1551 he had defeated both branches of the Uesugi family (the Ogigayatsu and Yamaouchi) and expanded into southern Kôzuke Province. He further defeated the Ashikaga in 1554 and placed his erstwhile ally Haruuji under house arrest. Further advances into Kôzuke were checked by both Uesugi Kenshin and the growing power of the Takeda. Ujiyasu's eastward movements brought conflict with the Satake, Yûki, and Satomi (the latter by now old enemies of the Hôjô). He defeated the Satomi at the 2nd Battle of Konodai in 1564 and was able to advance to the frontiers of the Boso Peninsula. By 1570 the Hôjô controlled Sagami, Izu, Musashi, and parts of Shimôsa, Kazusa, and Kôzuke. With further growth difficult in view of the threat posed by Takeda Shingen and frequent raids by Uesugi Kenshin, Ujiyasu assumed a defensive posture and greatly expanded Odawara Castle, which resisted sieges in 1561 (Uesugi) and 1569 (Takeda). He was active domestically as well as militarily: he ordered a series of aggressive cadastral surveys between 1542 and 1543 and in 1550 overhauled the kandaka taxation system. Ujiyasu also worked to make Odawara the center of trade and commerce in the Kanto region. Noting the disturbances caused by ikko leagues elsewhere, he banned the spread of those goups within his domain. Both a gifted general and administrator, Ujiyasu stands out as one of the foremost rulers of his day, although his achievements would be overshadowed by the demise of his clan two decades later.
Sons: Ujimasa, (Oishi) Ujiteru, (Fujita) Ujikuni, Ujinori, Ujitada, Ujimitsu, Ujihide (Uesugi Kagetora)
Kazusa no suke
Tsunashige was the son of Imagawa retainer Fukushima (Kushima) Masashige and was adopted by Hôjô Ujitsuna. He proved his talent in battle with the Uesugi in 1537 and was placed at Kawagoe Castle in Musashi Province. He defended this important position against the Uesugi and Ashikaga in 1544, who surrounded it with a huge army while Hôjô Ujiyasu was engaged with the Imagawa and Takeda in Suruga Province. He held out long enough for Ujiyasu to come to his aid in the beginning of 1545 and sallied out as part of the Hôjô's famous night attack that produced a decisive victory. He went on to fame in numerous engagements and was ably assisted by his son Ujishige (though the latter predeceased his father in 1578). Tsunashige was eventually made the guardian of Tamanawa Castle in Sagami Province. At the time of the 1568-69 war with the Takeda, he held Fukuzawa Castle in Suruga Castle and held off the Takeda's attacks until he was able to extricate himself back to Sagami.
Lord of Sagami
Sagami no kami, Sakyô-daibu
Ujimasa was the eldest son of Hôjô Ujiyasu. He was married to the eldest daughter of Takeda Shingen and this woman (whose name is lost to history) bore Ujimasa four sons. A veteran of a number of his father's campaigns, one of Ujimasa's first important acts as daimyô was to make peace with Takeda Shingen of Kai Province. He married a daughter to Takeda Katsuyori (Shingen's successor) in 1577 and sent troops to assist Uesugi Kagetora in his bid for power in Echigo (1579). These reinforcements failed to arrive on the scene in time and after Kagetora's death the Hôjô and Uesugi resumed their old feuding. Takeda Katsuyori made peace with the Uesugi in 1579, prompting Ujimasa to sever relations with the Takeda. This resulted in a series of inconclusive battles between the two families around Numazu in Suruga, highlighted by the Battle of Omosu (3/1580). Also in 1580, Ujimasa officially retired in favor of his son Ujinao but thereafter essentially acted as co-ruler. The two made some further Hôjô gains in Shimôsa Province, provoking war with the Satake in 1581 and 1585. In 1582 Ujimasa joined Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu in invading the Takeda domain, although the Hôjô contribution to this campaign was relatively minor. Tensions between the Hôjô and Oda increased as Nobunaga's retainers began to capture forts in Kôzuke - a province considered to be within Ujimasa's sphere of influence. Following Nobunaga's death in June 1582, Ujimasa and Ujinao defeated Takigawa Kazumasa at Kanagawa and drove the latter from Kôzuke, and the next year attempted to dislodge the Tokugawa from Kai. Following an inconclusive campaign, Ujimasa and Ieyasu made peace and Ujimasa was allotted some land in Kai and Shinano. In 1588 Toyotomi Hideyoshi began to press the Hôjô for a show of submission, to which Ujimasa was adamantly opposed, despite urgings from Tokugawa Ieyasu. Impatient with Ujimasa's obstinate attitude, Hideyoshi launched a massive invasion of the Kanto in 1590. Ujimasa and a number of senior retainers convinced Ujinao to prepare for a siege within the walls of Odawara (as opposed to attempting a field battle). One of Hideyoshi's demands for Odawara's surrender was the suicide of Ujimasa and when the castle capitulated in 8/1590, Ujimasa and his younger brother, Ujiteru, killed themselves.
Sons: Ujinao, Ujisada, Naoshige, (Ota) Ujifusa
Mutsu no kami
Ujiteru was the 2nd son of Hôjô Ujiyasu and was adopted into the Ôshi family. He held Takiyama and then Hachioji Castle in Musashi Province. Ujiyasu is said to have considered Ujiteru superior to his elder brother Ujimasa in most respects, although he was most noted for his diplomatic ability. Along with his brother Ujikuni, Ujiteru was defeated at Mimasetoge by Takeda Shingen (1569). He later urged his brother Ujimasa to form an alliance with Oda Nobunaga. Although the Hôjô and Oda had nominally cooperated in the invasion of the Takeda domain in the Spring of 1582, Ujimasa distrusted Nobunaga's intentions and was roused by Oda encroachment into Kôzuke. He disregarded Ujiteru's advice, which at any rate became a moot point with Nobunaga's death in June. When Odawara surrendered to Toyotomi Hideyoshi in August of 1590, Ujiteru was made to commit suicide along with Ujimasa.
Awa no kami
Ujikuni was the 3rd son of Hôjô Ujiyasu and was adopted by Fujita Yasukuni. He competed for reknown with his elder brother Ujiteru, whom he resembled in many ways. He was defeated along with Ujiteru at Mimasetoge by Takeda Shingen in 1569. At the start of the Odawara Campaign (1590), he was surrounded in Hachigata Castle in Musashi Province by Maeda Toshiie and Uesugi Kagekatsu. He held out for a month before surrendering. He was spared and later died of illness at Kanazawa in Kaga Province on 9/19/1597.
Mino no kami
Ujinori was the 4th son of Hôjô Ujiyasu, though his date of birth is uncertain. As a child, Ujinori was sent as a hostage to Imagawa Yoshimoto's capital, Sumpu (Suruga Province), where he met Tokugawa Ieyasu, a fellow hostage. He later returned to the Hôjô and was established at Nirayama Castle, the Hôjô's chief castle in Izu Province. Prior to the 1590 siege of Odawara Castle, Ujinori traveled to Kyoto to act as an intermediary between Hôjô Ujimasa and Ujinao and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Although negotiations failed, he distinguished himself by his noble bearing and intelligence. During the actual siege (May-July 1590) Ujinori continued to act as a negotiator, and when Odawara surrendered he was given a piece of land worth some 10,000 koku in Kwatchi Province.
Ujishige was the eldest son of Hôjô Tsunashige. He was a capable commander and was well-liked by Hôjô Ujiyasu. He distinguished himself in battle against Uesugi Kenshin in 1561 and against Takeda Shingen in 1569. In the latter campaign, he defended Tamanawa Castle in Sagami stoutly. He died of natural causes in 1578 and his house was eventually inherited by Hôjô Ujikatsu.
see: Uesugi Kagetora
Lord of Sagami
Ujinao was the eldest son and heir of Hôjô Ujimasa. He accompanied his father on most of his later campaigns, including the fighting with the Takeda at Omosu (1580) and the attack against Takigawa Kazumasa at Kanagawa in 1582. While Ujinao officially became the daimyô after 1580, Ujimasa continued to play a substantial role in Hôjô decision-making. Ujinao married a daughter of Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1584 and the relations between the Hôjô and Tokugawa improved over the next few years. Ieyasu advised Ujinao to submit to Toyotomi Hideyoshi but this advice went unheeded. In 1590 Hideyoshi went to war on the Hôjô and sent a massive host (which included the Tokugawa) into the Kanto. Ujinao was for fighting in the field but was overruled by his father and retainers, who noted the immense numbers Hideyoshi had at his disposal. After a two month siege of Odawara Castle, Ujinao agreed to surrender but asked that he be allowed to commit suicide in return for the well-being of his father and men. Hideyoshi refused to allow this, and Ujinao was spared while his father and top advisors were made to commit suicide. The Hôjô lands were confiscated in their entirety and transferred to Tokugawa. Ujinao went to Mt. Koya at first, and then to Kwatchi, where he is believed to have died of small pox. His mother had been the eldest daughter of Takeda Shingen.
copyright 2005 F. W. Seal