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Maximilien
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PostPosted: Wed Sep 19, 2007 3:11 am    Post subject: Reply with quote
hello,

I am really impressed by the information and artworks provided in this topics. Many thanks to Evalerio.
As i was creating an Oda clan army for wargame, many of those clan's nobori, sashimono,... are really interesting.
May i ask more questions about the flags of the Oda Clan itself? I found on internet the banner i think was oda personal one but never found a clear description of clan nobori or sashimono.
If a master of Japanese heraldry could help me...

In the same way, my brother is creating the Uesugi clan army. we found a picture of the flags of the Uesugi main retainer(warflag.com) but found no information about sashimono or other flags (especially for the Nakajo, the Suda and the Saito clan).
Furthermore, if anybody could help and explain the difference between the different flag used by Kenshin himself (that is to say the "red sun banner", the "dragon" banner or the "bi" kanji banner)

Many thanks in advance,
Maximilien
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PostPosted: Wed Sep 19, 2007 7:26 am    Post subject: Reply with quote
The HOJO of Odawara.
The dazzling and dizzying array of Hojo heraldry can be seen on display during the Hojo Odawara Godai Matsuri.

ISE SHINKURO (HOJO SOUN) (1432-1519)- Founder of the Go-Hojo of Odawara.

Shinkuro's early heraldry and the later Hojo flags. The white nobori is speculative using the Ise kamon. Shinkuro's uma-jirushi is based on the woodblock print. The two red Hojo hata-jirushi are based on Japanese and Osprey heraldry books. All the red Hojo flags above can be seen in Hojo Festivals. The white Hojo sashimono based on woodblock prints showing Hojo Soun.

HOJO UJITSUNA (1487-1541)- Eldest son of Ise Shinkuro. A very capable and successful daimyo who carried on his father's ambition, expanding the Hojo domain.

Ujitsuna's army would display large numbers of the white hata-jirushi and nobori. Ujitsuna's presence and his HQ will stand out as many red hata-jirushi and O-hata (very large nobori) will indicate the location. Flying alongside Ujitsuna's uma-jirushi is the Goshoku dandan, the five lucky colors nobori, proclaiming Ujitsuna as the commander of the Go-shiki Sonae , the five colored regiments.
Thanks to Bethetsu for translating the characters on the second uma-jirushi:
鑊湯無冷處
Kakutô mu Reijo Kettle's hot-water has-no cold place. The hot water of a kettle has no cold.
A Zen saying used in tea gatherings.


HOJO UJIYASU (1515-1570)

The main banners are described in Turnbull's Sourcebook and 'Samurai Warlords' and appear in Rekishi Gunzo books. The banners above are dislayed at the annual Hojo Odawara Godai Matsuri.

HOJO UJIMASA (1538 - 90)

The banners above are dislayed at the annual Hojo Odawara Godai Matsuri.

The GO HATAMOTO, the core of Hojo Ujiyasu's army. Six 'companies' with 7 'units' and one company with six 'units'. Each unit composed of a 'captain' leading 20 men, all wearing 'unit' kana sashimono. Sashimono with the kana in red identifies a 'unit' led by one of Ujiyasu's 'generals'. The Go Hatamoto has a total of 1008 men.

The complete set of characters appear in 'Samurai Warlords', if arranged in the correct order is said to spell a poem.
NOTE: This is the third update on the Go Hatamoto sashimono! I was finally able to locate a photo of a participant in the Hojo Festival wearing a Go Hatamoto sashimono.

To display the great power of the Hojo, sashimono of exagerrated sizes were used to awe friend and foe on the battlefield. The tall sashimono functioning like nobori and the extra-large ones functioning as uma-jirushi. Based on Ritta Nakanishi's illustrations.

Instead of non-combatant standard bearers, these huge sashimono were illustrated by Nakanishi as being worn by combat troops. They must have been cumbersome and difficult during combat!
1.) Samurai foot archer under Itabeoka Noto-no-kami. Nakanishi illustrated the distinct gold kabuto with large crest.
2.) One of the three foot retainers of Oguma Magoshichirou, this one described as a sashimono-carrier. This is probably the standard bearer for an uma-jirushi, but armed with a yari. The distinct three-colored jingasa had a mon in front in the black center, but I have been unable to find the Oguma kamon, so I have left it blank.
3.) Teppo Ashigaru. The sashimono is three times the size of the standard sashimono.
4.) Yumi Ashigaru.


GO-SHIKI SONAE - Forming the Hojo second rank in the battle line the five coloured regiments, in the five lucky colours of yellow, blue, red, white, and black.

HOJO TSUNANARI (1515-1587), the hero of the night battle of Kawagoe, commanded the Yellow Regiment at Kawagoe Castle in Musashi.

Based on the flags used during the Hojo Odawara Godai Matsuri. The Yellow Regiment form the largest contingent of participants in the Hojo Festival.
This is how I read the three uma-jirushi combination:
Uma-jirushi #1 is the personal standard of Tsunanari.
Uma-jirushi #2 identify Tsunanari as the commander of the Yellow regiment.
Uma-jirushi #3 identify Tsunanari as one of the commanders of the Go-shiki sonae.

There appears to be two Blue Regiments based at Kurihashi Castle.

TOMINAGA UEMON commanded one of the Blue Regiments.

KOGA KUBO commanded the other Blue Regiment. I don't have a bio for Kubo, and the name seems to be a 'title' or 'rank'.

The two distinct sets of blue flags are those displayed at the Hojo Festivals.

HOJO TSUNATAKA commanded the Red Regiment at Tamanawa castle in Kamakura.

The flags are based on those used in the Hojo Odawara Godai Matsuri. The second sashimono with the black band at the lower edge are often worn by missile troops (archers and teppo) at the Hojo Festivals.

KASAWARA NOTO commanded the White Regiment. The White Regiment served in the Hojo Navy at Shimoda Castle in Izu.


TAME SUO no kami of Hirai Castle, commanded the Black Regiment.

Rare and hard to see in photos and videos of the Hojo Festivals.

HOJO UJISHIGE (1536-1578), son of Tsunanari who distinguished himself in battles against Kenshin and Shingen.

The hata-jirushi is based on those used in the Hojo Odawara Godai Matsuri. Ujishige's complete set is described in the Sourcebook and illustrated in 'O uma-jirushi'.

HOJO UJINORI (1545?-1600) - 4th son of Hojo Ujiyasu. Acted as negotiator between the Hojo and Toyotomi Hideyoshi and would survive the fall of the Hojo.
HOJO UJIMORI (1577-1608)- Son of Hojo Ujinori.

Based on the flags at the Hojo Festivals.

HOJO UJINAO (1562-91)- Eldest son and heir of Hojo Ujimasa. Took part in most of Ujimasa's later campaigns. Spared by Hideyoshi after the Hojo's fall.

Based on the flags at the Hojo Festivals.

Below are unidentified contingents in the Hojo Festival.

Next to the Yellow Regiment, the flags below make up the second largest contingent in the Hojo Festival.


A substantial contingent at the Festival.


A much smaller contingent at the Festival.


The smallest contingent, barely noticeable at the Festival.


Last edited by evalerio on Fri Jul 27, 2012 12:33 am; edited 47 times in total
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PostPosted: Thu Sep 20, 2007 10:32 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote
Sakakibara Yasumasa, one of Tokugawa Ieyasu's 'Shi-tenno'. Part of the second division at Anegawa under Ogasawara Nagatada, where he and Honda Tadakatsu outflanked the Asakura army, then attacked the Asai flank to come to the aid of Oda Nobunaga. At Nagashino he fought the contingent of Naito Masatoyo.

The main banners are based on color plates in two Rekishi Gunzo books, which do not match the descriptions in Turnbull's Sourcebook. The samurai sashimono is based on the Anegawa screen. The ashigaru sashimono follows Turnbulls' description.

Sakakibara Yasukatsu, son of Yasumasa. Took part in the taking of the riverside forts during the Osaka Winter campaign, reinforcing Uesugi Kagekatsu trying to retake the Shigino fort. Fought in the final battle of Tennoji.

Yasukatsu's set is based on Turnbull's Sourcebook description, using Sakakibara Tadatsugu's banners in 'O-uma-jirushi' as a guide (appearing below).

Tadatsugu, grandson of Sakakibara Yasumasa.

Disc on samurai sashimono described by Turnbull as gold, but appears white in 'O uma-jirushi'.


Last edited by evalerio on Sun Feb 21, 2010 11:53 pm; edited 5 times in total
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PostPosted: Thu Sep 20, 2007 10:36 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote
evalerio,

Well done as usual. Smile


平和、

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PostPosted: Fri Sep 21, 2007 8:21 am    Post subject: Reply with quote
All are impressive but the portrait of Sakai Tadatsugu really stands out.

Is Sanada Masayuki near completion?
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PostPosted: Fri Sep 21, 2007 8:36 am    Post subject: Reply with quote
Evalerio - nice artwork - clean, direct, and informative. Good job!
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PostPosted: Fri Sep 21, 2007 8:37 am    Post subject: Reply with quote
Thanks, guys.

Sanada Masayuki is at the moment posing one of those recurring dillemma. The banners seem to be the same as those of the others already posted, 'inheriting' the banners of those who died earlier.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Okudaira Sadamasa, defender of Nagashino castle. Held out against the Takeda long enough for Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu to come to his rescue. When the bulk of the Takeda forces were throwing themselves at the palisades, Sadamasa led his men out of Nagashino castle and attacked the Takeda siege lines, killing 200 of Kosaka Masazumi's troops.

A bitter enemy of Takeda Katsuyori who had Sadamasa's family crucified, he would take part in the final campaign in 1582 that led to Katsuyori's destruction.

The complete set appears in 'O Uma-jirushi' and is described in the Sourcebook. The red fan appears in Osprey's 'Samurai Heraldry' with a 'straight' handle. The red fan in 'O uma-jirushi' has a 'curved' handle. In the Nagashino screen several Okudaira nobori fly over Nagashino castle, but with streamers with a red band in the center.

Sadamasa's banners were nearly identical to some used by the Sanada who were with the Takeda at Nagashino.

Matsudaira Tadaaki, son of the hero of Nagashino Okudaira Sadamasa, and adopted by Tokugawa Ieyasu. During the Winter Campaign 1614, his contingent of 5,000 was in the center of the siege lines to the west of Osaka. The contingent to his left of Hachisuka Yoshishige was attacked by the Osaka garrison led by Ban Naotsugu. In the Summer Campaign he took part in the 'Battle among the Tombs' at Domyoji, fighting alongside the Honda contingent against Goto Mototsugu. At the battle of Tennoji he brought up the rear of the Tokugawa contingents on the left flank of the Eastern Army.

His use of black is opposite to his father's white banners. Based on Sourcebook description and illustration in 'O Uma-jirushi'. The 3d O Uma-jirushi is speculation as most of it is obscured in my copy of his banners. Turnbull described the Ko Uma-jirushi as white umbrellas, but look like black rain hats in 'O Uma-jirushi'.


Last edited by evalerio on Sat Feb 20, 2010 1:13 pm; edited 4 times in total
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PostPosted: Sun Nov 25, 2007 11:19 am    Post subject: Reply with quote
In the center of the Oda/Tokugawa lines, behind the Nagashino palisades was Torii Mototada, who would later become famous as the heroic, but doomed defender of Fushimi castle at the beginning of the Sekigahara campaign. At Nagashino, one of Torii Mototada's samurai would take the head of Katsuyori's cousin.

The main banners are from a Rekishi Gunzo illustration which do not match the Sourcebook description which uses the heraldry of Torii Tadamasa (below) for Mototada. Torii banners also appear in a color plate in Osprey's 'Nagashino 1575'.

Tadamasa's complete set is described in The Sourcebook and appears in 'O uma-jirushi'. The 'elongated' lantern ko uma-jirushi is my interpretation of the crude drawing in 'O uma-jirushi'. Turnbull described the banners as dark blue, but appears to be black in 'O uma-jirushi'.

Torii Mototada fought the Takeda at Mikata-ga-Hara and Nagashino where one of Shingen's contingents flew nearly identical banners to that of Mototada.

TSUCHIYA MASATSUGU (1545? - 1575) - One of Takeda Shingen's '24 Generals', flew black banners with the Torii mon. Masatsugu was killed attacking the fences at Nagashino. His sons would later stay with Katsuyori to the very end at Temmokuzan.

The nobori is from a Rekishi Gunzo color plate. The rest of the banners with the 'simplified' Torii mon appear in color plates in Turnbull's 'Samurai Warriors' and 'Samurai Warlords'. Tsuchiya banners can be seen in the Takeda warband in the annual Kawanakajima Festivals and Shingen ko Matsuri. Through the years the black Tsuchiya banners appear to have been replaced by dark blue ones.

I know very little of Tsuchiya Tadanao. Desbribed by Turnbull as possibly related to Masatsugu. Tadanao served Tokugawa Ieyasu.

UPDATE-CORRECTED 07/07/09: Set based on 'O Uma-jirushi'. (Thank you, Zenmaster.)


Two different clans using the Torii mon on the same color banners serving the Tokugawa..........


Last edited by evalerio on Thu Jun 16, 2011 7:44 pm; edited 6 times in total
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Maximilien
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PostPosted: Sun Nov 25, 2007 11:24 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote
Hi Evalerio,

What a great work! Wonderful!
Many many thanks
It's really helpful!

Maximilien
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PostPosted: Mon Nov 26, 2007 4:01 am    Post subject: Reply with quote
Salamat Evalerio!

Fine work once again! Here's a page from the 'O Uma Jirushi' found at the Cambridge University Library courtesy of www.wikipedia.org for comparison.

Enjoy!

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:O_Uma_Jirushi_2.jpg
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PostPosted: Tue Nov 27, 2007 6:30 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote
This is a very basic question, but what is the difference between an o uma jirushi and a ko uma jirushi? What are the kanji?
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PostPosted: Tue Nov 27, 2007 8:45 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote
I believe we're talking about 大馬印 and 小馬印。The Samurai Sourcebook, if I remember right, fails to indicate long vowels...
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PostPosted: Wed Nov 28, 2007 3:45 am    Post subject: Reply with quote
The Artwork and attention to detail is amazing..

Are you planning on doing stuff from earlier periods at all??
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PostPosted: Wed Nov 28, 2007 8:50 am    Post subject: Reply with quote
Lupus wrote:
Are you planning on doing stuff from earlier periods at all??

The earlier the period, the less information I have. Usually just a hata-jirushi. No uma-jirushi or sashimono yet. A small flag attached to the shoulder guard more often to identify an individual rather than a unit.


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PostPosted: Wed Nov 28, 2007 9:13 am    Post subject: Reply with quote
Christian Samurai.

TAKAYAMA UKON (Christian name DOM JUSTO) (1552 - 1615) - Ukon was in Hideyoshi's vanguard at the Battle of Yamazaki. He was tasked by Hideyoshi to hold Iwasakiyama castle during the Shizugatake campaign, but was forced to abandon it during the battle. He took part in Hideyoshi's invasions of Shikoku (1584) and Kyushu (1587). Died in exile in my home country of The Philippines where a statue of him still stand at Plaza Dilao, 'Yellow Plaza' in Filipino, where he is revered as a Christian martyr.

The main banners are from Rekishi Gunzo illustrations. Takayama banners can be seen in the Shizugatake screens, flying over the walls of Iwasakiyama. Takayama 'triple' sashimono are seen in the troops inside Iwasakiyama or in flight abandoning the castle. Ukon's nobori, uma-jirushi and sashimono can also be seen in the Yamazaki mural.

NAKAGAWA KIYOHIDE (1542 - 63) - Kiyohide and Takayama Ukon were comrades, often on the same battlefield. Both followed Araki Murashige in rebelling against Oda Nobunaga, both surviving that act of rebellion. Both were in Hideyoshi's vanguard in the battle of Yamazaki. In the Shizugatake campaign Kiyohide and Ukon held castles for Hideyoshi. While Ukon survived, Kiyohide was killed defending Shizugatake castle against Sakuma Morimasa.

The Sourcebook describe his heraldry as unknown except for his mon which incorporated the Christian cross. The black and white nobori, uma-jirushi and horo are from the Shizugatake screens which show many of the black and white nobori flying over Shizugatake castle. No sashimono can be seen, except for a black horo worn by Kiyohide as he leads a final sortie out of Shizugatake castle. The white nobori and sashimono with the Christian cross are from the Yamazaki mural.

The unigue uma-jirushi of twin flags with Christian cross mon can be seen over Shizugatake castle. Kiyohide's son Hidenari lived long enough for his own heraldry to appear in 'O uma-jirushi'. Hidenari used a 'twin flag' uma-jirushi nearly identical to that seen in the screens flying over Shizugatake castle.

I don't know whether Kiyohide's sons were also Christians. His heir Hidemasa (1568-92) served Hideyoshi from the Komaki campaign to the invasion of Korea where he met his end, not on a battlefield like his father, but while he was hawking where he was surrounded and killed by Korean guerillas. Kiyohide's second son Nakagawa Hidenari succeeded. He took part in the invasion of Korea in 1597 leading 2,500 men (Thanks Obenjo). Hidenari sided with Tokugawa Ieyasu during the Sekigahara campaign and probably for this his heraldry is included in 'O uma-jirushi'.


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PostPosted: Wed Nov 28, 2007 10:01 am    Post subject: Reply with quote
Thanks for all the GREAT work done here!

Question, any ideas on the colors of the armor/clothing that the different samurai's armies used? i.e like the first ashigaru you pictured?
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PostPosted: Fri Nov 30, 2007 9:21 am    Post subject: Reply with quote
There was little to no standardized coloring to the armor of the rank and file, outside of a couple of well-known groups, namely, those under Yamagata Masakage and Ii Naomasa, who reportedly had their men dressed in red, although whether they did this for all of them or just the men in the front ranks (as seems to have been the case with Yamagata) is unclear. Armor was itself not standardized, excepting the army of Date Masamune, towards the very tail end of the period, and he was quite unique in that. Depending on when you were an ashigaru during the 16th Century and where, you might be lucky to have armor at all and most likely it would be whatever you (or your father) managed to scavenge off the field of previous battles. Armor was a valuable commodity; woe to the straggling samurai who fell into the hands of the locals.
The sashimono of individual ashigaru was also probably a good deal rougher, graphically, than those represented in Edo Period manuals and histories.
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PostPosted: Fri Nov 30, 2007 10:08 am    Post subject: Reply with quote
Thanks for the insight. I wanted to get some info before I painted my wargaming miniatures.

I noticed you are in Baltimore. I am in Perry Hall. Hey there neighbor!
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PostPosted: Sat Dec 01, 2007 11:53 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote
The Matsudaira of Echizen.

YUKI HIDEYASU (1574-1607) - Tokugawa Ieyasu's second son. Brought up by Toyotomi Hideyoshi and would fight in the Kyushu campaign. Adopted by the Yuki in 1590. During the Sekigahara campaign he joined in the containment of Uesugi Kagekatsu. His sons Tadanao and Tadamasa formed the branch of the Matsudaira of Echizen.

The banners are from several Rekishi Gunzo books.

Matsudaira Tadanao, eldest son of Yuki Hideyasu and grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Led a large contingent of 10,000 men during the Osaka campaign, but displeased his grandfather when he arrived late on the battlefield. He redeemed himself by leading his men in attacking the Sanada Maru alongside the Red Devils. Tadanao and the Red Devils suffered heavy casualties and forced to withdraw, but continued on to break through the Hachomeguchi gate. The first Tokugawa contingents to 'enter' the grounds of Osaka Castle during the Winter Campaign, but a counterattack by Kimura Shigenari drove them out.

Tadanao was in the thick of the fighting at the battle of Tennoji, when the Tokugawa vanguard was scattered and withdrew into Tadanao's contingent, which was then attacked in the flank by Sanada Yukimura.

UPDATE - CORRECTED 07/08/09: Ko Uma-jirushi and Tsukaiban sashimono. (Thanks, Zenmaster)

The complete set appears in 'O Uma-jirushi'. A color plate of Tadanao's attack on the Hachomeguchi gate appears in the Osprey book Osaka 1615. I have no idea what the 3d Ko Uma-jirushi is, described by Turnbull as a white 'shape'.

MATSUDAIRA (YUKI) TADAMASA (1597-1645) - Second son of Yuki Hideyasu. Fought in the Osaka Summer Campaign. I am assuming he was part of his brother Tadanao's large contingent. He acquitted himself well on his first battle, taking 57 heads! He would receive the fief of Kawanakajima.

Complete set in O Uma-jirushi. The nobori appears 'wider' than the average nobori. The 'flower' at the top of the Uma-jirushi appears in the folding screen, but described as a gohei in the Sourcebook, and looks different in the woodblock version.

MATSUDAIRA (YUKI) NAOMASA (1601- 1666) - The third son of Yuki Hideyasu.

From O Uma-jirushi.

MATSUDAIRA (YUKI) NAOMOTO (1604- 1648) - The fourth son of Yuki Hideyasu.

From O Uma-jirushi.


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PostPosted: Sun Dec 02, 2007 1:52 am    Post subject: Reply with quote
Great work as always evalerio. I was informed by a Japanese speaker that the hiragana indeed form a poem. John

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PostPosted: Thu Dec 20, 2007 3:45 am    Post subject: Reply with quote
Great work, Evalerio.
Thank you for sharing.
I guess you are aware of the recent japanese book with drawings very similar to yours (but less complete). Are you involved in any way?
I am also looking for a good sourcebook; I found the three volums Dai-Bukan; can you suggest other titles?
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PostPosted: Thu Dec 20, 2007 8:47 am    Post subject: Reply with quote
Thank you, Guiseppe. Wish I could afford the Dai Bukan set. Were you referring to this:
http://www.hlj.com/product/GAK02415
There's another one where the sets were also incomplete, but can't find a link for it. I'm not involved with any Japanese books.

The books that would help 'complete' a set is mentioned with each set I post. Sometimes small bits of information from sometimes a dozen books to complete one set.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DAIDOJI MASASHIGE (1533-1590), One of Hojo Ujimasa's chief advisors. He took part in the battles of Mimasetoge and Kanagawa. Made to commit suicide after the fall of Odawara.

The two uma-jirushi are based on Rekishi Gunzo illustrations. The nobori and sashimono are speculative based on the Daidoji mon.


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PostPosted: Thu Dec 20, 2007 9:12 am    Post subject: Reply with quote
Yes, I was referring to that book of course.
So you agree the dai bukan is the best text to buy?
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evalerio
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PostPosted: Thu Dec 20, 2007 12:26 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote
giuseppepiva wrote:
Yes, I was referring to that book of course.
So you agree the dai bukan is the best text to buy?


I don't know enough of the contents of the book to recommend it for the price I've seen. The information is said to be of the Edo period onward. Heraldry research for both my job and my hobby often do not extend beyond the Sengoku period and the siege of Osaka.
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Ukita Naoie was a vassal of the Urakami. His conquests were instrumental in the Urakami's rise to power while plotting his masters downfall at the same time. An alliance with the Mori in 1576 placed the Ukita in the first lines of defense against Oda Nobunaga. In 1580 Naoie would send his son Hideie as a hostage to Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Ukita Hideie was raised by Hideyoshi and would act as the chief field commander in the 2nd Korean Campaign. He sided with Ishida Mitsunari during the Sekigahara Campaign and commanded the largest Toyotomi loyalist contingent. His troops fought well at Sekigahara until the 'turncoats' turned the tide of battle. Died in exile at the age of 90, outliving many of his contemporaries.

The main banners are from Rekishi Gunzo. The nobori with two mon is also in Osprey's 'Samurai Heraldry'. The sashimono is from the Sekigahara screen.

Otani Yoshitsugu was a leper carried on a palanquin to the battlefield of Sekigahara and bore the brunt of the attack of the 'turncoats'. Betrayed and outflanked, he had a retainer put an end to him with instructions to hide his head. In some TV series he is depicted with most of his face covered in a cowl to conceal his affliction.

The nobori and fukinuki are illustrated in Rekishi Gunzo. In one of the Sekigahara screens Otani samurai facing the attacks of Kobayakawa Hideaki and Wakizaka Yasuharu are shown with dark-colored serrated sashimono.


Last edited by evalerio on Tue Apr 13, 2010 7:26 am; edited 1 time in total
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Templar
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PostPosted: Sat Jan 26, 2008 12:22 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote
The Hojo selection is the best I have seen anywhere.
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